See also: Latest Sochi 2014 Medal Count
The Sochi 2014 Games will be held February 7 – 23, 2014. Fifteen sport disciplines, organized as seven Olympic sports, were included in the Sochi 2014 Olympic Competition Schedule.
Biathlon has its origins in the ancient hunting practices of northern Europeans. An Olympic event since 1960, biathlon today combines cross-country skiing with small-caliber rifle marksmanship.
A world-class Cross-country Ski & Biathlon Center was built for the Olympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. This facility includes a 7,500 seat stadium, courses, a shooting range, and a warm-up area. In designing the facility, preference was given to modern technical solutions, while the issues of universality and multifunctional use formed the basis for all project solutions.
The individual competition is a classical style biathlon race covering 20 km for men and 15 km for women, with four shooting lanes. Biathletes start at intervals of either 30 seconds or one minute with each competitor choosing his (her) own shooting lane. The first and third shooting stages are taken from the prone position, while the second and fourth are fired standing. Biathletes are penalized one minute for each missed target.
|M: 10 km Sprint
|W: 7,5 km Sprint
|M: 12,5 km Pursuit
|W: 10 km Pursuit
|M: 20 km Individual
|W: 15 km Individual
|M: 15 km Mass
|W: 12,5 km Mass
|W: 4×6 km Relay
|M: 4×7,5 km Relay
|“Laura” Cross-country Ski & Biathlon Center is located on the crest and slopes of the Psekhako Ridge. Capacity 7,500|
Bobsleigh: Bobsleigh and Skeleton
Bobsleigh entered the Olympic Winter Games program in 1924 in Chamonix with a single four man event. In 1928, the event included four and five man sleds (or toboggans). Since 1932 (except for 1960 Squaw Valley Games where the organizers chose not to build a bobsleigh track), there have been two and four man events. In October 1999, women’s bobsleigh was added to the Olympic Winter program and women competed for the first time in the two-person event at Salt Lake City in 2002.
A one-of-a-kind track for luge, bobsleigh and skeleton, the Sliding Center “Sanki” was built for the Olympic Winter Games of 2014. State-of-the-art refrigeration technology ensures the accurate and constant monitoring of temperatures along the entire track.
|W: 19:15–21:10||W: 20:15–22:20||Four-Man
|The Sliding Center “Sanki” is built at the Alpika Service Mountain Ski Resort, with its track finishing area at Rzhanaya Polyana. Capacity 5,000|
Skeleton is the discipline where competitors aim to drive a one-person sled in a prone, head-first position down an ice track in the fastest time. Olympic skeleton events consist of four runs timed electronically to 0.01 seconds. The four runs are contested over two days and the final standings are determined by the aggregate time of the four runs. If athletes complete the competition in a tie, they receive the same award.
The Russian National Sliding Center “Sanki” was built at the Alpika Service Mountain Ski Resort with a finish area in Rzhanaya Polyana. Events can be watched by 9,000 spectators.
Curling originated in the 16th century in Scotland, where games were played during the winter on frozen ponds, lochs and marshes. The Stirling Stone, engraved with the date 1511, is considered to be the oldest curling stone in the world.
Curling first appeared as a medal sport at 1924 Olympic Winter Games in Chamonix but only in 2006 was it formally accepted by the International Olympic Committee and given its Olympic debut. Curling was also a demonstration sport at the Games of 1932, 1988 and 1992. It has been a full medal sport and part of the Olympic Program since 1998.
The “Ice Cube” Curling Center is located in the coastal cluster among the Olympic Park’s other facilities. The design of the building relies on a combination of smooth and well-rounded contours reminiscent of the shape of the curling stone and accentuated by the bright polished surfaces of its facades. The seating capacity of the “Ice Cube” Curling Center is 3,000 spectators.
The origins of Ice Hockey are unclear, but it is widely accepted that the British are responsible for bringing ice hockey to North America. Soldiers stationed in Nova Scotia (Canada), played the earliest games. In 1879, a group of college students at McGill University in Montreal organized competitions and developed the first known set of ice hockey rules. Ice Hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since the 1920 Summer Olympics. A women’s Ice Hockey tournament was added to the Olympic program for the 1998 Olympic Winter Games.
Ice hockey competitions will be held at “Bolshoy” Ice Dome and “Shayba” Arena. The “Bolshoy” Ice Dome resembles the famous Easter Faberge Egg, a well-known Russian cultural symbol. After the Games, the facility will become an modern multifunctional sport, concert and entertainment center.
The “Shayba” Arena is able to accommodate 7,000 spectators. After the Games, the facility will be dismounted and transferred to another city in Russia.
Luge is the French word for sled, and historical findings point to the use of sleds as early as AD 800 by Vikings in the Slagen countryside near the Oslo Fjord. The Vikings are believed to have had sleds with two runners closely resembling the modern-day version.
Luge first developed as a sport in Switzerland, where the first course was built at Davos in 1879. Four years later, the town hosted the first international competition, with competitors racing along a 4 km icy track from Davos to the village of Klosters. Luge made its Olympic debut at the Olympic Winter Games of 1964 in Innsbruck.
Luge is considered as one of the most dangerous Olympic winter sports. During a run, the sled can reach speeds of over 140 km/h. The sled is steered by changing the luger’s center of gravity.
There are three classes of Olympic competition: singles men, singles women and doubles. Men and women compete on the same track, but women’s and doubles’ starting line is further down the course than men’s. A one-of-a-kind track for luge, bobsleigh and skeleton, the Sliding Center “Sanki” was built for the Olympic Winter Games of 2014.
Skating: Figure Skating, Short Track Speed Skating and Speed Skating
Figure skating is the oldest discipline in the Winter Olympics. As far back as 1908, figure skating competitions were included in the Summer Olympics in London, and in 1920 at the Antwerp Games. As of 1924 Olympics in Paris, singles and pair skating became a fixed part of the Olympic Winter Program.
A demonstration sport up through the 1972 Winter Games, Ice Dancing became part of the Olympic program in 1976, when Soviet figure skaters Lyudmila Pakhomova and Aleksandr Gorshkov became the first Olympic Ice Dancing champions.
The “Iceberg” Skating Palace in Sochi where both figure skating and short-track events will be held during 2014 Olympic Winter Games is not only a world-class modern athletic facility, but also a genuine work of art in its own right. The smooth, curving lines of the building’s façade are intended to evoke the trajectory of a figure skater performing a triple axel. The venue is able to accommodate 12,000 spectators.Short track speed skating was first introduced as a full medal sport in 1992 at Albertville after having been a demonstration sport at the 1988 Olympic Winter Games in Calgary. This exciting sport has proved extremely popular with spectators ever since its introduction at the Winter Games in 1992, due to the speed, closeness of the skaters and potential for collisions and falls.
At the Olympic Winter Games, Short Track Speed Skating consists of eight medal events. Men and women compete in 500 meter, 1000 meter, and 1500 meter races. There is a 5000 meter relay for men, and a 3000 meter relay for women. Under 2014 Olympic Winter Games concept, the “Iceberg” Skating Palace will play a key role – hence its location in the Olympic Park which will be the heart of events in the Coastal cluster. The unique design of the Sochi Olympic Skating Center will allow it to be used as a multipurpose sports and cultural facility after the Games.Speed skating was first contested at the 1924 Olympic Winter Games and has been on the Olympic Winter program ever since. Women first competed in speed skating at the Olympics in 1960. Team pursuit became part of the Olympic program only in 2006.
Speed skating at the Olympic Games consists of ten individual events: 500 meter, 1000 meter, 1500 meter, 5000 meter for both men and women, women’s 3000 meter, men’s 10,000 meter and Team pursuit for men and women. Thus 12 sets of Olympic medals are awarded in speed skating.
The “Adler-Arena” Skating Center in Sochi is located in the Olympic Park and looks like an ice fault. A crystal face theme is supported by angular walls and triangular stained-glass windows. The gray and white color of the building enhances this impression.
The “Adler-Arena” Skating Center is designed to make the utmost use of local natural features. Spectators will be able to admire scenic mountain views to the north and seascapes to the south. For this reason, the walls along the sides of the skating rink are made as transparent as possible. After the Games, this 8,000 seat facility will be used as an exhibition center.
Skiing: Alpine, Cross Country, Nordic Combined, Ski Jumping, Freestyle and Snowboard
Alpine skiing first became part of the Winter Olympics in 1936, at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. The only alpine events at the next Games were slalom and downhill, but at 1952 Olympic Winter Games in Oslo, medals were awarded in three alpine disciplines: Slalom, Giant Slalom, and Downhill. It was not until the Calgary Olympic Winter Games in 1988 that the Super-G was added to the program.
During the Olympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi, Alpine skiing events will be held at the Rosa Khutor Alpine Center on the Aibga Ridge. The Olympic alpine skiing courses will total 20 km in length. The resort is designed to accommodate 10,000 spectators.
The Olympic Alpine competition consists of five events each for women and men. These include Downhill, Slalom, Giant Slalom, Super Giant, and Super Combined. The rules are the same for men and women, but the courses differ. Ten sets of medals altogether are awarded.
- The downhill (DH) features the longest course and the highest speeds in Alpine skiing (120 km/h). Each skier makes a single run down a course one after another and the fastest time determines the winner.
- The slalom (SL) is an alpine skiing discipline that involves skiing between poles (or “gates”) spaced much closer together than in Giant Slalom, Super-G or Downhill, resulting in quicker and shorter turns. Slalom is a two-run event; the skier with the fastest combined adjusted time for the two runs wins.
- Giant slalom (GS) involves skiing between sets of gates spaced at a greater distance from each other than in slalom but not as great as in Super-G. The number of gates in this event ranges from 56 to 70 for men and 46 to 58 for women. The final result is based on the total time taken over the two different runs. The Super giant slalom (Super-G) incorporates aspects of both downhill and giant slalom racing. It involves skiing between widely spaced gates as in Giant Slalom, but with fewer turns over a longer course and with higher speeds approaching those achieved in Downhill.
- The Super Combined event includes one Downhill or Super-G run and one Slalom run on a single day.
At the Olympic Winter Games, the cross-country skiing discipline comprises twelve different events. They include sprint, team sprint, individual start, pursuit, mass start and relay events.
The skis are long and thin, to distribute the weight of the skier and allow the skier to move quickly. Depending on the ski design and purpose, they are customized to fit the skier.
During the Olympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi, skiers will use courses laid out at the “Laura” Cross-country Ski & Biathlon Center located on the Psekhako Ridge.
The Center includes a 9,600 seat stadium; courses for freestyle and classic skiing; a warm-up zone; and a temporary building for functional groups that will provide services related to the organization and administration of the Olympic Games.Nordic Combined individual events have been part of the Olympic Winter program since the first Olympic Winter Games in Chamonix in 1924. The team event was introduced at the 1988 Calgary Games, with three athletes per team taking part, while at Nagano in 1998, each team counted four persons.
During Sochi 2014 Olympic Games, Nordic Combined events will be held at the RusSki Gorki Jumping Center on the Northern slope of Aibga Ridge in Krasnaya Polyana. First time in the Olympic History the ski jumps outrun will be combined with the start and finish area of the Nordic Combined Cross Country.
The site for ski jumping arena was deliberately selected at a junction of two ridges by international experts so that the jumpers would be protected from side winds and so that the ski jumps would blend into the landscape.
After the Games, the “RusSki Gorki” Jumping Center will be used as the National Training Center. The Center includes: a 9,600 seat stadium, a warm-up zone and a permanent multistoreyed building for Games operations that will provide services related to the delivery of the Games.Ski jumping has been a part of the Olympic Winter Games since the first Games in Chamonix in 1924. The Large Hill competition was included in the program for Innsbruck 1964 Olympic Winter Games.
Russia’s first ski jumpers made headlines in St. Petersburg and Moscow in the early 20th century. Referees at the first official competition held in 1912 in Yukka near St. Petersburg passed judgment by guess-work based primarily on general impressions of the jump.
To date, only men can compete in ski jumping at the Olympic Games. Women’s World Championships have been held since 2009— currently the highest level event for women. Special boots with high instep allowing skiers to lean forward during flight. Special jumping skis can be up to a maximum length of 146% of the total height of the competitor.
Three men’s ski jumping events are held at the Olympics:
- Individual Normal Hill: The longest distance reached is around 105 meters. There are two jumps, the first round – open to 50 who qualified on the day before and the final round – limited to the top 30 after the first round.
- Individual Large Hill: The best jumpers land at around 140 meters. There are two jumps: the first round, open to 50 who qualified on the day before; and the final round, limited to the top 30 after the first round.
- Team Event: There are four members in each team, and there are two jumps (a first and a final round). All teams start in the first round. In the final round the field is reduced to the eight best teams. The team with the highest total score over the eight jumps is declared the winner.
Three sets of Olympic medals are awarded in ski jumping. The “RusSki Gorki” Jumping Center, where ski jumping events will take place during the Olympic Games of 2014 in Sochi, is located in the village of Esto-Sadok on the northern slope of the Aibga Ridge.Freestyle skiing was a demonstration event at the Olympic Winter Games of 1988 in Calgary, Canada. Mogul skiing on bumpy terrain was added as an official medal event at the Olympic Winter Games of 1992 in Albertville, France. The aerials event was added for the Winter Olympics of 1994 in Lillehammer, while ski cross had its debut at the Olympic Winter Games of 2010 in Vancouver.
The standard length of mogul skis is typically 180 cm for men and 170 cm for women. For aerials, the standard ski length for both men and women is 160 cm. Ski cross skis are similar to those used in the Super Giant Slalom. In moguls the color of knee pads often contrasts with that of a ski suit in order to draw the judges’ attention to the skier’s expertise.
There are three events for men and women in the Olympic Freestyle program:
- Moguls: skiers race down a course over a series of bumps or moguls. Each athlete is required to perform two tricks and jumps. The Olympic format includes a one-run elimination round followed by a one-run final of 16 to 20 skiers.
- Aerials: consists of a two-jump qualifying stage followed by a two-jump final. Competitors are judged on jump takeoff (20%), jump form (50%) and landing (30%).
- Ski cross: consists of several rounds of competition. In the qualifying stage, athletes race down a course approximately 1000 meters long with turns and obstacles. 32 athletes with the best times are then divided into groups of four and compete to determine who proceeds to the next round of competition. The top two competitors in each group then move on to the medal round.
Six sets of medals are awarded for freestyle events. At the Olympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi, freestyle skiing events will be held to the west of Rosa Khutor Plateau on the Aibga Ridge. Excellent snow cover, together with special tracks for freestyle moguls, aerials and ski cross, are certain to make this 8,000 seat facility a permanent venue for world-class events in future.Men’s and women’s snowboarding made their Olympic debuts at Nagano Games in 1998 with Alpine and freestyle competitions. The parallel giant slalom events appeared on the Salt Lake City Olympic program for the first time, replacing the two giant slalom events that were contested in Nagano.
The first snowboard was brought to Russia in the late 1980’s. In 2010 Ekaterina Ilyukhina from Russia took silver in the Women’s Snowboarding Giant Parallel Slalom at the Winter Olympics in Vancouver
There are six snowboard events in the program of the Olympic Winter Games: men’s and women’s half-pipe, parallel giant slalom and Boarder-cross. A specially designed flexible board for half-pipe is essential for balance and tricks. The Alpine board is stiff and narrow, which is ideal for turns and high speed. The Boarder-cross board is designed to allow high speed, combined with a maximum of tolerance and flexibility to avoid mistakes in the jumps and obstacles.
- The half-pipe competition takes place in a bowl-shaped course dug deep into the hill. Using speed gained on the slope, snowboarders come up over the rim of the pipe and perform acrobatic aerial tricks. The object of the half-pipe is to perform difficult tricks with perfect form.
- The parallel giant slalom features head-to-head matches on the mountain. After the qualification round, a 16-person tournament is established and athletes compete under the knock-out system on two side-by-side courses until there is a winner.
- The Boarder-cross event is held on a challenging route including jumps, bumps, berms and other obstacles. The heats consist of four riders who start at the same time, with the best two in the finish proceeding to the next round (where the athlete with the best time in the previous round goes first). Finally, the four fastest snowboarders make the final and compete for medals.
Six sets of medal are awarded altogether. The X-treme Park “Rosa Khutor” was created to the west of Rosa Khutor Plateau for Olympic snowboarding events in Sochi. Excellent snow cover, together with special courses for Boarder-cross, Parallel Giant Slalom and Half-pipe ensure that this 8,000 seat facility becomes a permanent venue for world-class competitions.
The Olympic Competition Schedule has been approved by International Sports Federations, the International Olympic Committee and the Olympic Broadcasting Service. In total, 98 medals will be awarded. During the Games in Sochi 6,000 Olympic athletes and team members from around 85 countries will come to the Games.